1. Rate of Decay
At normal pressures, carbon takes the form of graphite, in which each atom is bonded trigonally to three others in a plane composed of fused hexagonal rings, just like those in aromatic hydrocarbons. For the datasets used for calibration, see pp. Coke is used to reduce iron ore into iron smelting. There are two key variables which can affect the CO 2 intensity of an economy:.
Sue; Marino, Joseph G. Unfortunately, his misunderstanding of the radiocarbon date range has resulted in him adopting an ad hoc randomly generated number range to satisfy his hypothesis retrospectively. The work of the Aegean Dendrochronology Project started in s and since then it has continued since to build the long tree-ring chronologies for the eastern half of the Mediterranean. In , a group of about twenty experts in various aspects of carbon dating met in Turin for the sole purpose of setting up the protocol for the procedure, knowing that this would be the most complicated and controversial carbon dating ever done. The effects of the fire of on the carbon 14 content of the fabric are not clear. Dinosaur bone showing 5pmc means that five percent of the carbon in the bone needs to be replaced with modern carbon, which high level of contamination would very possibly be detectable.
Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. The uses of carbon and its compounds are extremely varied.
It can form alloys with iron , of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing.
It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment , as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming , in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors.
Charcoal is used as a drawing material in artwork , barbecue grilling , iron smelting , and in many other applications. Wood, coal and oil are used as fuel for production of energy and heating. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Plastics are made from fossil hydrocarbons, and carbon fiber , made by pyrolysis of synthetic polyester fibers is used to reinforce plastics to form advanced, lightweight composite materials.
Carbon fiber is made by pyrolysis of extruded and stretched filaments of polyacrylonitrile PAN and other organic substances.
The crystallographic structure and mechanical properties of the fiber depend on the type of starting material, and on the subsequent processing. Carbon fibers made from PAN have structure resembling narrow filaments of graphite, but thermal processing may re-order the structure into a continuous rolled sheet. The result is fibers with higher specific tensile strength than steel. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink , artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper , automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner.
Carbon black is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Activated charcoal is used as an absorbent and adsorbent in filter material in applications as diverse as gas masks , water purification , and kitchen extractor hoods , and in medicine to absorb toxins, poisons, or gases from the digestive system. Carbon is used in chemical reduction at high temperatures. Coke is used to reduce iron ore into iron smelting. Case hardening of steel is achieved by heating finished steel components in carbon powder.
Carbides of silicon , tungsten , boron and titanium , are among the hardest known materials, and are used as abrasives in cutting and grinding tools. Carbon compounds make up most of the materials used in clothing, such as natural and synthetic textiles and leather , and almost all of the interior surfaces in the built environment other than glass, stone and metal. The diamond industry falls into two categories: While a large trade in both types of diamonds exists, the two markets act in dramatically different ways.
Unlike precious metals such as gold or platinum , gem diamonds do not trade as a commodity: Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and heat conductivity, with the gemological qualities of clarity and color being mostly irrelevant. The dominant industrial use of diamond is in cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. Most of these applications do not require large diamonds; in fact, most diamonds of gem-quality except for their small size can be used industrially.
Diamonds are embedded in drill tips or saw blades, or ground into a powder for use in grinding and polishing applications. Garnering much excitement is the possible use of diamond as a semiconductor suitable for microchips , and because of its exceptional heat conductance property, as a heat sink in electronics.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled and even ingested safely in the form of graphite or charcoal. It is resistant to dissolution or chemical attack, even in the acidic contents of the digestive tract. Consequently, once it enters into the body's tissues it is likely to remain there indefinitely. Diamond dust used as an abrasive can be harmful if ingested or inhaled.
Microparticles of carbon are produced in diesel engine exhaust fumes, and may accumulate in the lungs. Carbon generally has low toxicity to life on Earth ; but carbon nanoparticles are deadly to Drosophila.
Carbon may burn vigorously and brightly in the presence of air at high temperatures. Large accumulations of coal, which have remained inert for hundreds of millions of years in the absence of oxygen, may spontaneously combust when exposed to air in coal mine waste tips, ship cargo holds and coal bunkers,   and storage dumps. In nuclear applications where graphite is used as a neutron moderator , accumulation of Wigner energy followed by a sudden, spontaneous release may occur.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Carbon disambiguation. For the company, see Element Six. Triple-alpha process and CNO cycle. Compounds of carbon with other elements in the periodic table This box: Retrieved 12 November Chemical Rubber Company Publishing.
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Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft. Turning And Mechanical Manipulation. Internet Archive Archived at the Wayback Machine. United States Geological Survey. Therefore, there would have to be thousands of times more uranium, thorium, etc. Both mathematical analysis of the data, and the nature of some of the specimens, indicate that contamination does not solve the radiocarbon problem for old-earth geologists.
While dinosaur bones, coal, and other specimens could easily be contaminated, diamonds, the hardest naturally occurring substance in the world are naturally resistant to contamination. Thus, when significant quantities of 14c are found, for example, in coal and dinosaur bones, as well as in diamonds, the least contamination-resistant 14c-rich specimens provide a constraint on the likelihood of contamination as a primary source for the modern carbon in other similarly-dated specimens.
Thus the radiocarbon content of diamonds is all the more compelling and important, and especially when the specimens are mined from a quarter-of-a-mile below the surface, insulated from our 14c-bearing atmosphere. Contamination is not only far more unlikely within deep-mined and unbroken diamonds, but because of the unique physical composition of diamonds, various kinds of contamination could be more readily detectable.
Just as forensic accountants can often determine when a criminal business has cooked its books merely by doing a Benford statistical analysis of the numbers, so too mathematicians have demonstrated that statistical analysis can indicate whether scientific data is likely a result of measurement errors. So evolutionists typically claim that all this 14c results from contamination, but statistical analysis indicates that when plotting erroneous dates as from contamination , the data should fit a normal curve.
However, it does not. Regarding the results from the ten dinosaurs dated as above , of course, bacteria do not make collagen.
And if the 14c came from contamination, for example, one would not expect the contamination to so equally affect the bioapatite and the collagen. The above paper indicates that where sampled, the ground area has decreasing 14c with distance from the dinosaur bone, indicating that modern carbon is leaching out of the bone which is not problematic , but, most significantly, not seeping into the bone.
Dinosaur bone showing 5pmc means that five percent of the carbon in the bone needs to be replaced with modern carbon, which high level of contamination would very possibly be detectable.
Dinosaur bone showing 5pmc means that, because the 14c half-life is so brief, 5, years, if the radiocarbon is from contamination that occurred 6, years ago, a full five percent, i. See below, 42 minutes into Paul Giem's presentation. Thus, where researchers find both soft tissue and 14c, especially in small bones as with the mosasaur , the claim that the biological tissue is dinosaurian and is not contamination works exactly against the claim that the 14c is from contamination.
The inventor of the radiocarbon dating method, Dr. Walter Libby, stated in the journal Science, "There is no known natural mechanism by which collagen may be altered to yield a false age.
Here's our RSR explanation of why this is. Because new carbon atoms will not replace original carbon atoms in the collagen molecule. As a result of decomposition, to the extent that original carbon atoms were falling out of the tissue so to speak , then to that extent you would no longer have collagen; rather, to that extent you would have humic acid.
Decomposing collagen cannot be "repaired" by free carbon atoms happening upon the decomposition. Rather, the collagen must be manufactured within a living animal with its constituent carbon atoms into a " super-super-coil In addition to work already done documenting appreciable 14c levels even in contamination-resistant specimens, we recommend a few experiments including a couple proposed by RSR friend David Willis: The young earth model predicts the finding of significant quantities of carbon 14 throughout the bone.
The evolutionary model would predict no modern carbon in such a bone, but as a secondary assumption, if 14c is found, since any contaminating material would have to pass through the outer layers of the bone to get into the center, the contamination explanation would expect to measure generally decreasing percentages of 14c from the outside to the center of each individual bone.
A second experiment, beginning as above, would be to date a small diameter bone and a larger diameter bone from the same dinosaur.
Getting the same dates would help rule out contamination because the smaller bone will have a larger surface to volume ratio which, if contamination were a significant factor, should result in higher percentages of modern carbon. A third experiment that could falsify contamination as a possible source of 14c involves: With the announcement that these reserves in Siberia contain diamonds that are "twice as hard as normal", these will be ideal for 14c dating because their natural hardness would further rule out contamination.
Also, evolutionary geologists claim that these diamonds were already ancient when, allegedly 35 million years ago, a meteor impacted above them. The evolutionary model predicts no carbon dead 14c. The young earth model predicts significant quantities of 14c measurable throughout the diamond. Petersburg, Russia, where it was studied by the Russian orientalist A. So great was the interest in this codex that in Pisarev or Pissareff was encouraged to publish a facsimile edition.
Petersberg, a number of folios were separated from this manuscript and over the years a number of folios have appeared under the hammer at auction or have been sold privately between collectors. It was found in North Africa. This is a massive Qur'anic manuscript on vellum showing a well-formed kufic script without diacritical marks and ornamentation.
The verse endings are marked by small panels of diagonals lines; the tenth verse is marked with a square medallion illuminated in blue, green, red and manganese with a stellar design. Shebunin dated this manuscript to the early second century hijra.
Pisarev,  Jeffery dated it to the early ninth century. The recto side of folio of manuscript Leiden Or. This manuscript was privately acquired by C. Van Arendonk was a curator of the Leiden Oriental collections. Qur'ans written on papyrus are quite rare.
This is because papyrus, unlike parchment, is not as durable a material for everyday use. Due to their fragile nature combined with regular use of the Qur'an, these manuscripts may not have survived. The recent radiocarbon dating of this papyrus under the auspices of the Corpus Coranicum project gave a date range of — CE with This privately-owned fragment of the Qur'an is unpublished and remains in the private collection of Professor Dr.
Mark Mersiowsky, located in Stuttgart, Germany. This manuscript, consisting of one folio only, was subject to radiocarbon analysis under the auspices of the Corpus Coranicum project and has been dated to — CE with This Qur'an is written on 7 lines per page measuring on average A folio from Arabe m belongs to Codex R.
This small Qur'an is written on 6 lines per page measuring on average just The largest section is kept under shelfmark R. Additionally there are four other folios, Ms. Arabe m , ff.
A folio from Ms. This Qur'an is written on 5 lines per page measuring on average Numerous folios have been acquired on the open market and are scattered around the world in various public and private collections. Table I below provides a summary of radiocarbon dated manuscripts of the Qur'an that have been described and fully referenced in the previous section.
Some manuscripts were dated several times to understand the accuracy of the process as well as to presumably check the location-dependent changes in dating that may be observed. List of radiocarbon dated manuscripts of Qur'an. As shown in Table I, it has been radiocarbon-dated in five different labs in five different countries.
This also serves as a platform to independently verify the agreement on dating performed in various laboratories. Agreement between independent radiocarbon tests conducted at different laboratories is a very useful method for weeding out aberrations due to mishandling of samples.
One may conclude that the radiocarbon tests completed at Lyon are suspect due to their irreproducibility. The application of radiocarbon dating to early Qur'ans has also resulted in a raft of questionable, bizarre and even absurd hypotheses from non-scientists. It is not clear whether such attempts are to anchor their own chronological reconstruction of history or to construct a totally "new science" to extricate their version of history.
We will examine some of these prominent hypotheses below. Being well served by historians, is Qur'anic studies really in need of carbon dating? After all there are some major drawbacks to this method - it is very expensive and destructive. Other serious issues include the wide range of calendar years in which a manuscript could have been written.
Scholars have successfully utilised "traditional" dating methods such as palaeography, codicology and art history that utilise script, format, ornamentation and illumination which are then compared, where possible, with their dated counterparts in architecture.
In short, why bother? Being a modern invention, some historians have become unduly skeptical in embracing radiocarbon dating. Two Qur'ans, both with endowment notices, were carbon dated by the Centre de Datation par le Radiocarbone de Lyon, France, and provided a range of dates that preceded the date given in the endowment notices by around 50 and years, respectively.
It is also important to remember that the carbon dating of parchment is an imprecise science something indicated by the large range of possible dates given for the various fragments.
An imprecise science does not follow the scientific method - the method that involves testing an idea and modifying the idea to fit the evidence. Radiocarbon dating utilizes the knowledge of the unstable nature of 14 C with a precise half-life that makes it easy to measure, thus making it an absolute dating method.
As a test, in , Willard Libby and his team took samples of acacia from two ancient Egyptian Old Kingdom rulers and dated them. Therefore, it is clear that radiocarbon dating is not based on some imprecise science, cooking up evidence to fit the idea or data.
On the other hand, palaeography is a relative dating method which gives an order of events without giving an exact age. Thus, generally speaking, it cannot be used to pinpoint dates with high precision.
Is palaeography a form of science? Commenting on the issues regarding the dating of inscriptions, William M. The so-called science of paleography often relies on circular reasoning because there is insufficient data to draw precise conclusion about dating. Scholars also tend to oversimplify diachronic development, assuming models of simplicity rather than complexity.
In other words, palaeography can at best be termed as an inexact science, filled with uncertainties and imprecisions. It is not judicious to upscale palaeography for its reliability whilst, on the other hand, putting down radiocarbon dating for its alleged lack thereof. So, what is the general "rule of thumb" followed in dating manuscripts via palaeography?
This kind of precision dating defies the realities of scribal activity. The productive writing life of a scribe was probably around thirty or thirty-five years. Add to that the fact that the scribal profession was an apprenticed trade, with students learning a particular style from a teacher, and we find that a given hand may be present over multiple generations of scribes. Thus the "rule of thumb" should probably be to avoid dating a hand more precisely than a range of at least seventy or eighty years.
This is comparable with the "rule of thumb" of at least a range of 70 to 80 years used in palaeography for dating a manuscript. Unlike radiocarbon dating, it is worth noting that a range of 70 to 80 years used in palaeography has no confidence level attached to it.
The choice of whether to believe in such a "confidence level" is entirely up to an individual. In any case, the Birmingham results suggest that Lyon might not have botched the job after all. Intriguingly, the first date range from Lyon — corresponds rather closely to the date range given from a laboratory in Oxford for the Birmingham manuscript — What is telling here is the fact that Reynolds, instead of using a scientific approach to look at the problem, applies his own reasoning that must necessarily accord with his preferred historical interpretation.
How does one make a rational choice as to which date, if any, out of these three is correct? The answer is that there is no way of knowing if Lyon botched the job unless these three dates are independently compared with those obtained from other labs.
Reynolds makes no attempt to use the scientific method here. Nevertheless, the dating of these manuscripts has proven to be highly problematic and controversial. Suffice to say that the process of radiocarbon dating does not seem to be working accurately on these materials.
For instance, one such manuscript, now in Birmingham, England, has been given a date range that places it before Muhammad began his religious movement. It is not clear as to why the radiocarbon dating of these manuscripts is inaccurate.
Furthermore, how does Shoemaker know that the dating is inaccurate? Has he got independent, consistent and reliable radiocarbon data of each of these manuscripts which can prove his case?
It is worthwhile pointing out that when applied to parchments in fields other than Qur'anic studies, radiocarbon dating has yielded results that are "generally Shoemaker says the Qur'an could predate Muhammad but elsewhere his radical reinterpretation of Islam's origins necessitates he cannot accept a date for the codification i.
For him the Qur'an can predate or antedate Muhammad; that it could coincide is not a consideration. Here the problem may lie with the conditions arid or semi-arid climate under which the cattle, the hides of which were later turned into parchment, was raised. Thus, according to his view, the arid or semi-arid climate in which the parchment for Qur'anic manuscripts were produced does not lend itself to accurate radiocarbon dating. There are numerous problems with this view.
As we had noted earlier, radiocarbon 14 C is produced via the cosmogenic process and this happens at stratospheric altitudes of 9 to 15 km above the surface of the Earth. In general, the cosmic rays flux remains constant and observed fluctuations in production rate of 14 C are controlled by geomagnetic field strength and solar activity.
Thus seasonal changes and presence of moisture on the surface of the Earth have no effect on the production rate of 14 C. What about the variation of decay of radiocarbon 14 C due to the chemical environment around the atom?
Thus, the variation of just a percentage or so, is much too small to affect Earth's overall time scale and consequently the radiocarbon dating itself.
If one were to instead use the data from the southern hemisphere and we are talking about Arabia here , I am told by those more expert in this procedure than me that very different datings would result. To begin with, Arabia is not in the Southern Hemisphere. It is situated in the Northern Hemisphere between the latitudes The Tropic of Cancer at As for the global atmospheric radiocarbon content, it is controlled by several factors such as climatic changes, oceanic circulation, solar output and geomagnetic variability.
It has been demonstrated that Southern Hemisphere samples have lower 14 C contents. The question now is how much older are the radiocarbon samples from the Southern Hemisphere compared to the Northern Hemisphere? Furthermore, it is not surprising that the calibration data set for the Northern Hemisphere IntCal series  is different from that of the Sourthern Hemisphere SHCal series ,  and that these are frequently updated to fine tune the respective calibration curves.
That is, these manuscripts are from 1st century of hijra. Shoemaker's argument against radiocarbon dating shifts from raising the inter-hemispheric offset to intra-hemispheric changes in radiocarbon content. The problem, it would seem, is that radiocarbon dating in the medieval period is only accurate when it can be calibrated by tree ring data, particularly from oak trees. Such data is wanting for the medieval Mediterranean or Near East, and the data from the northern hemisphere that has been used to calibrate these tests was taken from Ireland and North America.
There are several inaccuracies in the above set of statements. The work of the Aegean Dendrochronology Project started in s and since then it has continued since to build the long tree-ring chronologies for the eastern half of the Mediterranean. Its aim was to make scientific sense of the Aegean and Near Eastern chronology from the Neolithic Age to the present. The most recent state as of late of the Aegean tree-ring chronology is shown in Figure 23 which also appeared in a slightly expanded form in The state of Aegean tree-ring chronologies as of late This is an update of the bar graph published in Less common species such as boxwood and yew are removed in this plot.
Now that we have established the fact that the dendrochronological data from oak trees among others already exist, let us now look into the issue of calibration. Shoemaker says that since the calibration is done using the tree-ring data from Ireland and North America, it can't be trusted for dating medieval Mediterranean and Near East samples. The tacit assumption of his claim is that the chronology derived from the tree-ring data from Ireland and North America is very different from what is obtained from the Mediterranean and Near East samples.
One of the fundamental tenets of radiocarbon dating is that within each hemisphere there was sufficient mixing of the pre-industrial atmosphere to allow the use of a universal 14 C calibration dataset.
On the issue of calibration, it must be mentioned that the dendrochronological database for the IntCal04 curve is largely similar to the dataset of the IntCal98 curve, but also includes new measurements for the Iron Age period, for example, German Oak samples run for the East Mediterranean Radiocarbon Comparison Project.
A trial run of the model against the IntCal04 calibration curve gave essentially similar results, albeit that the dates become slightly older. Reynolds, on the other hand, claimed that the dating of Dead Sea Scrolls may be considered more accurate than the dating of manuscripts of Qur'an. His reasoning is as follows:. This allows scientists to calibrate their measurements more precisely. This is entirely erroneous. The tree ring atmospheric radiocarbon calibration data set spanning 0 to 12, years BP is used Figure It is superior to all other atmospheric radiocarbon calibration data due to the number and quality of the radiocarbon measurements and the accuracy and precision of the tree dendrochronology.
Schematic diagram of IntCal04 and Marine04 calibration data set construction. The IntCal09 uses a similar data set. Said scraps of linen and piece of leather are dated using the standard calibration data set. It appears that Reynolds does not properly comprehend how radiocarbon calibration curves are constructed. Strained, arbitrary and impossible interpretations of science, in our case of the science of radiocarbon dating, can lead to endless possibilities, i.
We have already seen specific examples in the above sub-sections. Here we are going to deal with historical constructions or possibilities that have been put forth which are a result of interpretations of radiocarbon dating, more specifically of the Mingana folios at Birmingham.
Parchment was an expensive material the skin of the entire animal was used to produce the big folio. These stocks became part of the loot captured by the Arabs in the first years of the conquest. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary to reread the existing historical sources dedicated to the first years of the Arab conquests. In essence, one is asked to believe in the fantastic hypothesis that the people of Greater Syria among other places stocked already prepared blank parchment and were eagerly awaiting the advent of Islam and Arab conquests in order to hand them willingly this valuable possession.
In essence one is to believe unused parchment had been left for years! Why would the seller s expend an enormous amount of time, money and effort to prepare a multitude of blank parchment with no customer or no prospect of a customer?
This in itself is self-contradictory and it assumes a thriving market. Additionally, if a client could afford to have such a codex constructed, why would one rely on parchment that is years old?
Rich patrons presumably could afford brand new parchment, given the likely deterioration of prepared stocked parchment that is years old. Did the new rulers and their subjects need recourse to stocked parchment? We are not aware of any example in early Islamic history where the Muslims were unable to execute a writing project because of the lack of prepared stocked parchment.
Common sense dictates if the Muslims desperately needed parchment to write on, they could have simply requested already used parchment, religious or otherwise, scraped it clean and started writing. All of the preceding assumes the existence and logical necessity of prepared stocked parchment that is years old.
Rezvan cites no historical sources supportive of his hypothesis, and, as far as we are aware, there is no recorded instance around the time of late antiquity of prepared blank parchment being stored for years. Unfortunately, his misunderstanding of the radiocarbon date range has resulted in him adopting an ad hoc randomly generated number range to satisfy his hypothesis retrospectively. Reynolds has expended a not inconsiderate amount of effort explaining, identifying and at times advocating John Wansbrough's theories,  including Wansbrough's now abandoned theory of a late compilation of the Qur'an.
There is not the slightest hint of historical context that necessitates the wholesale re-writing of the Late Antiquity, including nascent religious movements, inter-religious dynamics, Arabic palaeography, codicology, scribal culture and book culture. This kind of irresponsible flip-flopping is unlikely to benefit the field of Qur'anic studies and leaves the author's stated position on this most important issue confused and uncertain.
There is an important methodological principle to be observed here. Arabe a and Ms. With the benefit of further examination and additional evidence, he has since revised his views and now considers them as emanating from the same manuscript.
Images: carbon dating summary
As this cloth continues to be studied into the Millennium, it is important that we, the jury who sit in its judgment, keep an open mind. Amazingly, the Julsrud dinosaur figurine matches the color drawing of an Amargasaurus cazaui in the Japanese dinosaur book. The big question is, of course, how they got such an anomalous date.
This is likely to be a compounded effect of coal-dominated energy systems and heavily industrialized economies. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. Scrapings were taken from a rib still imbedded in the clay soil of a ranch in CO, partially excavated in and , in Ma late Jurassic strata by C.
Thus, according to his view, the arid or semi-arid climate in which the parchment for Qur'anic manuscripts were produced does not lend itself to accurate radiocarbon dating. The lab representatives were carvon present at this packaging process, in accordance with the protocol. The radiocarbon dating of the fragment summarry carried out at the University of Oxford [Figure 11 b ]. Source for the Latin version the d'Arcis Memorandum. Carbon dating summary is the main protein found in connective tissue carbon dating summary animals.
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