Filipinos - Wikipedia

Filipino mestizo

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These were formed by the assimilation of various native Philippine kingdoms. Get in Touch Call: I like baking, cooking, dancing, playing dart, badmenton and table tennis and also I love playing guitar. Indio were native Austronesians, but as a legal classification, Indio were those who embraced Roman Catholicism and Austronesians who lived in proximity to the Spanish colonies. These were considered to live outside the social order as Catholicism was a driving force in everyday life, as well as determinant of social class. Creating an account only takes few seconds.

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Who is Fusion for? During the period of Spanish colonialism the Philippines was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain , which was governed and controlled from Mexico City.

Early Spanish settlers were mostly explorers, soldiers, government officials and religious missionaries born in Spain and Mexico. Most Spaniards who settled were of Andalusian ancestry but there were also Catalan , Moorish and Basque settlers.

The Peninsulares governors born in Spain , mostly of Castilian ancestry, settled in the islands to govern their territory. Most settlers married the daughters of rajahs , datus and sultans to reinforce the colonization of the islands.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese traders also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population. However, the only part of the Philippines which the British held was the Spanish colonial capital of Manila and the principal naval port of Cavite , both of which are located on Manila Bay. The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris At the end of the war the treaty signatories were not aware that Manila had been taken by the British and was being administered as a British colony.

Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Empire.

The ones in Manila settled at Cainta, Rizal and the ones in the north settled in Isabela. Most were assimilated into the local population. The arrival of the Spaniards to the Philippines attracted new waves of immigrants from China , and maritime trade flourished during the Spanish period.

The Spanish recruited thousands of Chinese migrant workers called sangleys to build the colonial infrastructure in the islands. Many Chinese immigrants converted to Christianity, intermarried with the locals, and adopted Hispanized names and customs and became assimilated, although the children of unions between Filipinos and Chinese that became assimilated continued to be designated in official records as mestizos de sangley. The Chinese mestizos were largely confined to the Binondo area until the 19th century.

However, they eventually spread all over the islands, and became traders, landowners, and moneylenders. A total of Manila-Acapulco galleons set sail between and , during the Philippines trade with Mexico. Until , three or more ships would set sail annually from each port bringing with them the riches of the archipelago to Spain. European criollos , mestizos and Portuguese, French and Mexican descent from the Americas, mostly from Latin America came in contact with the Filipinos.

Japanese , Indian and Cambodian Christians who fled from religious persecutions and killing fields also settled in the Philippines during the 17th until the 19th centuries.

With the inauguration of the Suez Canal in , Spain opened the Philippines for international trade. European investors such as British, Dutch, German, Portuguese, Russian, Italian and French were among those who settled in the islands as business increased. More Spaniards arrived during the next century. Many of these European migrants intermarried with local mestizos and assimilated with the indigenous population.

Due to the strategic location of the Philippines, as many as 21 bases and , military personnel were stationed there since the United States first colonized the islands in These bases were decommissioned in after the end of the Cold War , but left behind thousands of Amerasian children.

Buck International Foundation estimates there are 52, Amerasians scattered throughout the Philippines. In addition, numerous Filipino men enlisted in the US Navy and made careers in it, often settling with their families in the United States.

Some of their second or third generation-families returned to the country. Following its independence, the Philippines has seen both small and large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving American, European, Chinese and Japanese peoples.

More recent migrations into the country by Koreans , Persians , Brazilians , and other Southeast Asians have contributed to the enrichment of the country's ethnic landscape, language and culture. Centuries of migration , diaspora , assimilation , and cultural diversity made most Filipinos accepting of interracial marriage and multiculturalism. Philippine nationality law is currently based upon the principle of jus sanguinis and, therefore, descent from a parent who is a citizen of the Republic of the Philippines is the primary method of acquiring national citizenship.

Birth in the Philippines to foreign parents does not in itself confer Philippine citizenship, although RA, the Administrative Naturalization Law of , does provide a path for administrative naturalization of certain aliens born in the Philippines. Filipinos of mixed ethnic origins are still referred to today as mestizos. However, in common parlance, mestizos are only used to refer to Filipinos mixed with Spanish or any other European ancestry.

Filipinos mixed with any other foreign ethnicities are named depending on the non-Filipino part. The history of racial mixture in the Philippines occurred on a smaller scale than other Spanish territories in the Latin America during the Spanish colonial period from the 16th to the 19th century.

A caste system, like that used in the Americas Spanish America , existed in the Philippines, with some major differences. The indigenous peoples of the Philippines were referred to as Indios and Negritos.

Indio were native Austronesians, but as a legal classification, Indio were those who embraced Roman Catholicism and Austronesians who lived in proximity to the Spanish colonies. People who lived outside Manila , Cebu and the major Spanish posts were classified as such: The un-Catholic Negritos and Austronesians who lived in the towns were classified as 'salvajes' savages or 'infieles' the unfaithful. People of pure Spanish descent living in the Philippines who were born in Spanish America were classified as 'americanos'.

Mestizos and africanos born in Spanish America living in the Philippines kept their legal classification as such, and usually came as indentured servants to the 'americanos'. The Philippine-born children of 'americanos' were classified as 'Ins'. The Philippine-born children of mestizos and Africanos from Spanish America were classified based on patrilineal descent. The term negrito was coined by the Spaniards based on their appearance. The word 'negrito' would be misinterpreted and used by future European scholars as an ethnoracial term in and of itself.

Both Christianized negritos who lived in the colony and un-Christianized negritos who lived in tribes outside the colony were classified as 'negritos'. Christianized negritos who lived in Manila were not allowed to enter Intramuros and lived in areas designated for indios. A person of mixed Negrito and Austronesian ancestry were classified based on patrilineal descent; the father's ancestry determined a child's legal classification.

If the father was 'negrito' and the mother was 'India' Austronesian , the child was classified as 'negrito'. If the father was 'indio' and the mother was 'negrita', the child was classified as 'indio'. Persons of Negrito descent were viewed as being outside the social order as they usually lived in tribes outside the colony and resisted conversion to Christianity.

This legal system of racial classification based on patrilineal descent had no parallel anywhere in the Spanish-ruled colonies in the Americas. In general, a son born of a sangley male and an indio or mestizo de sangley female was classified as mestizo de sangley; all subsequent male descendants were mestizos de sangley regardless of whether they married an India or a mestiza de sangley.

A daughter born in such a manner, however, acquired the legal classification of her husband, i. In this way, a chino mestizo male descendant of a paternal sangley ancestor never lost his legal status as a mestizo de sangley no matter how little percentage of Chinese blood he had in his veins or how many generations had passed since his first Chinese ancestor; he was thus a mestizo de sangley in perpetuity.

If a 'filipina' married an 'indio', her legal status would change to 'India', despite being of pure Spanish descent. The social stratification system based on class that continues to this day in the Philippines has its beginnings in the Spanish colonial area with this caste system. The Spanish colonizers reserved the term Filipino to refer to Spaniards born in the Philippines. The use of the term was later extended to include Spanish and Chinese mestizos , or those born of mixed Chinese-indio or Spanish-indio descent.

Late in the 19th century, Jose Rizal popularized the use of the term Filipino to refer to all those born in the Philippines, including the Indios. He went to his death saying that he was indio puro. The Spanish caste system based on race was abolished after the Philippines' independence from Spain in , and the word 'Filipino' expanded to include the entire population of the Philippines regardless of racial ancestry.

The majority of Filipinos are Austronesians , a linguistic and genetic group that includes other ethnicities from maritime Southeast Asia , Madagascar , and the Pacific islands. Other hypotheses have also been put forward based on linguistic, archeological, and genetic studies. These include an origin from mainland South China linking them to the Liangzhu culture and the Tapengkeng culture , later displaced or assimilated by the expansion of Sino-Tibetan peoples ; [72] [73] an in situ origin from the Sundaland continental shelf prior to the sea level rise at the end of the last glacial period c.

The most frequently occurring Y-DNA haplogroups among modern Filipinos are haplogroup O1a-M , which has been found with maximal frequency among the indigenous peoples of Nias , the Mentawai Islands , and Taiwan , and Haplogroup O2 -M, which is found with high frequency in many populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Polynesia.

In particular, the type of O2-M that is found frequently in Filipinos, O-P xM , is also found frequently in other Austronesian populations. However, DNA studies vary. However, only 28 individuals from the isolated rural island of Palawan were genotyped for this study, a sample size far below the minimum sample size needed to account for credible test results in a population of over million individuals. The European ancestry was actually more of a side note as the study was geared towards "interbreeding" between Homo erectus and homo sapiens.

Sundadont patterns occur in mainland and maritime Southeast Asia as well as Oceania. Austronesian languages have been spoken in the Philippines for thousands of years.

Starting in the second half of the 16th century, Spanish was the official language of the country for the more than three centuries that the islands were governed through Mexico City on behalf of the Spanish Empire. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Spanish was the preferred language among Ilustrados and educated Filipinos in general. Significant agreements exist, however, on the extent Spanish use beyond that.

It has been argued that the Philippines were less hispanized than Canaries and America , with Spanish only being adopted by the ruling class involved in civil and judicial administration and culture. Spanish was the language of only approximately ten percent of the Philippine population when Spanish rule ended in Chavacano is the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia.

Its vocabulary is 90 percent Spanish, and the remaining 10 percent is a mixture of predominantly Portuguese , Nahuatl Mexican Indian , Hiligaynon , and some English. Chavacano is considered by the Instituto Cervantes to be a Spanish-based language. In a Spanish decree introduced universal education , creating free public schooling in Spanish, yet it was never implemented, even before the advent of American annexation.

Spanish continued to be the predominant lingua franca used in the islands by the elite class before and during the American colonial regime. Following the American occupation of the Philippines and the imposition of English, the overall use of Spanish declined gradually, especially after the s.

According to Ethnologue , there are about languages spoken in the Philippines. Regional languages are designated as auxiliary official languages. The constitution also provides that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. The letter modern Filipino alphabet, adopted in , is the official writing system.

Also, language of each ethnicity has also their own writing scripts, which are no longer used and set of alphabets. There are also large groups of Protestant denominations, which either grew or were founded following the disestablishment of the Catholic Church during the American Colonial period.

The Iglesia ni Cristo is currently the single largest indigenous church, followed by United Church of Christ in the Philippines. The Iglesia Filipina Independiente also known as the Aglipayan Church was an earlier development, and is a national church directly resulting from the Philippine Revolution. Other native inhabitants follow Islam , forming a large minority. Islam in the Philippines is mostly concentrated in southwestern Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago which, though part of the Philippines, are very close to the neighboring Islamic countries of Malaysia and Indonesia.

The Muslims call themselves Moros , a Spanish word that refers to the Moors albeit the two groups have little cultural connection other than Islam. Historically, ancient Filipinos held animistic beliefs that were influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism , which were brought by traders from neighbouring Asian states. Indigenous groups like the Aeta are Animists, while Igorot and Lumad tribes still observe traditional religious practises, often alongside Christianity or Islam. In addition, there are Lumad , who are indigenous peoples of various animistic and syncretic religions.

There are currently more than 10 million Filipinos who live overseas. Filipinos form a minority ethnic group in the Americas, Europe, Oceania, [99] [] the Middle East, and other regions in the world.

There are an estimated 3. Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Filipinos as a nation and citizenship. For information of the population of the Philippines , see Demographics of the Philippines. Flag of the Philippines. Name of the Philippines. History of the Philippines.

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January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Models of migration to the Philippines , Demographics of the Philippines , and Ethnic groups in the Philippines.

Languages of the Philippines and Philippine languages. Religion in the Philippines. Retrieved April 25, Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 18 February Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 1 July National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior.

Retrieved 21 July Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 5 October Foreigners in Thailand " PDF. Retrieved 25 December Census Bureau of Macau. Retrieved 29 January Statistisk sentralbyra Statistics Norway. Archived from the original on Retrieved 3 February Overseas Filipinos in Switzerland".

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