Norwich City 1-0 Middlesbrough: Recap and reaction as 10-man Boro suffer defeat at Carrow Road
International Association of Health Policy. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. Record number of Brits with no religion". We service all brands of power equipment including …. An ambulance was stood down at the scene.
If this can be equated with a treaty, it could be argued that the forthcoming distribution of power between Westminster and Belfast has similarities with divisions specified in the written constitutions of federal states Major sports, including association football, tennis , rugby union , rugby league , golf , boxing , netball , rowing and cricket , originated or were substantially developed in the UK and the states that preceded it. The rise of Irish nationalism , and disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Rule , led eventually to the partition of the island in Redcar and Cleveland Cold baths, badly managed medicine and not enough staff at 'inadequate' care home. England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales. And he looks threatening. That was a chance for big Daniel and Gibson to bound forward, but Norwich defended the set-piece well and cleared their lines.
It has a high-income economy and has a "very high" Human Development Index , ranking 16th in the world. It was the first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Although the United Kingdom, as a sovereign state, is a country, England, Scotland, Wales and, to a lesser degree, Northern Ireland, are also regarded as countries, though they are not sovereign states.
The term "Britain" is often used as synonym for the United Kingdom. The term "Great Britain", by contrast, refers conventionally to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England, Scotland and Wales in combination. The adjective "British" is commonly used to refer to matters relating to the United Kingdom. The term has no definite legal connotation, but is used in law to refer to United Kingdom citizenship and matters to do with nationality. In Welsh, the long form name of the state is "Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon", with "Teyrnas Unedig" being used as a short form name on government websites.
Settlement by anatomically modern humans of what was to become the United Kingdom occurred in waves beginning by about 30, years ago. In , the Normans and their Breton allies invaded England from northern France and after its conquest , seized large parts of Wales , conquered much of Ireland and were invited to settle in Scotland , bringing to each country feudalism on the Northern French model and Norman-French culture.
Following the Declaration of Arbroath , Scotland maintained its independence, albeit in near-constant conflict with England. The English monarchs, through inheritance of substantial territories in France and claims to the French crown, were also heavily involved in conflicts in France, most notably the Hundred Years War , while the Kings of Scots were in an alliance with the French during this period.
The early modern period saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches in each country. In , the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scots , inherited the crowns of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London; each country nevertheless remained a separate political entity and retained its separate political, legal, and religious institutions.
In the midth century, all three kingdoms were involved in a series of connected wars including the English Civil War which led to the temporary overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the short-lived unitary republic of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Although the monarchy was restored , the Interregnum ensured along with the Glorious Revolution of and the subsequent Bill of Rights , and the Claim of Right Act that, unlike much of the rest of Europe, royal absolutism would not prevail, and a professed Catholic could never accede to the throne. The British constitution would develop on the basis of constitutional monarchy and the parliamentary system. During this period, particularly in England, the development of naval power and the interest in voyages of discovery led to the acquisition and settlement of overseas colonies , particularly in North America.
Though previous attempts at uniting the two kingdoms within Great Britain in , , and had proved unsuccessful, the attempt initiated in led to the Treaty of Union of being agreed and ratified by both parliaments. On 1 May , the united Kingdom of Great Britain came into being, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms.
In the 18th century, cabinet government developed under Robert Walpole , in practice the first prime minister — The Jacobites were finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden in , after which the Scottish Highlanders were brutally suppressed. British imperial ambition turned towards Asia, particularly to India. During the 18th century, Britain was involved in the Atlantic slave trade. British ships transported an estimated two million slaves from Africa to the West Indies. Parliament banned the trade in , banned slavery in the British Empire in , and Britain took a leading role in the movement to abolish slavery worldwide through the blockade of Africa and pressing other nations to end their trade with a series of treaties.
The world's oldest international human rights organisation, Anti-Slavery International , was formed in London in The term "United Kingdom" became official in when the parliaments of Britain and Ireland each passed an Act of Union , uniting the two kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In the early 19th century, the British-led Industrial Revolution began to transform the country. Gradually political power shifted away from the old Tory and Whig landowning classes towards the new industrialists. An alliance of merchants and industrialists with the Whigs would lead to a new party, the Liberals , with an ideology of free trade and laissez-faire. In Parliament passed the Great Reform Act , which began the transfer of political power from the aristocracy to the middle classes.
In the countryside, enclosure of the land was driving small farmers out. Towns and cities began to swell with a new urban working class. Few ordinary workers had the vote, and they created their own organisations in the form of trade unions.
After the defeat of France at the end of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars — , Great Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century with London the largest city in the world from about Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, British dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many regions , such as Asia and Latin America. During the century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses.
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. Social reform and home rule for Ireland were important domestic issues after The Labour Party emerged from an alliance of trade unions and small socialist groups in , and suffragettes campaigned for women's right to vote before After the war, Britain received the League of Nations mandate over a number of former German and Ottoman colonies.
The British Empire reached its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population. The rise of Irish nationalism , and disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Rule , led eventually to the partition of the island in Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom. Britain had still not recovered from the effects of the war when the Great Depression — occurred. This led to considerable unemployment and hardship in the old industrial areas, as well as political and social unrest in the s, with rising membership in communist and socialist parties.
A coalition government was formed in Winston Churchill became prime minister and head of a coalition government in Despite the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, Britain and its Empire continued the fight alone against Germany. Urban areas suffered heavy bombing during the Blitz. There were also eventual hard-fought victories in the Battle of the Atlantic , the North Africa campaign and the Burma campaign.
British forces played an important role in the Normandy landings of , achieved with its United States ally. Independence was granted to India and Pakistan in Many became members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The UK was the third country to develop a nuclear weapons arsenal with its first atomic bomb test in , but the new post-war limits of Britain's international role were illustrated by the Suez Crisis of The international spread of the English language ensured the continuing international influence of its literature and culture.
In the following decades, the UK became a more multi-ethnic society than before. In the decade-long process of European integration , the UK was a founding member of the alliance called the Western European Union , established with the London and Paris Conferences in The Treaty of Lisbon was signed in , which forms the constitutional basis of the European Union since then.
From the late s, Northern Ireland suffered communal and paramilitary violence sometimes affecting other parts of the UK conventionally known as the Troubles. It is usually considered to have ended with the Belfast "Good Friday" Agreement of Following a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the s, the Conservative government of the s under Margaret Thatcher initiated a radical policy of monetarism , deregulation, particularly of the financial sector for example, Big Bang in and labour markets, the sale of state-owned companies privatisation , and the withdrawal of subsidies to others.
From , the economy was helped by the inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues. Around the end of the 20th century there were major changes to the governance of the UK with the establishment of devolved administrations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK is still a key global player diplomatically and militarily. However, controversy surrounds some of Britain's overseas military deployments , particularly in Afghanistan and Iraq. The global financial crisis severely affected the UK economy.
The coalition government of introduced austerity measures intended to tackle the substantial public deficits which resulted. The article stipulates that the negotiations to leave will last at least two years. The UK remains a full member of the EU during this time. The country occupies the major part of the British Isles  archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands.
The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames , Severn and the Humber. Scotland is the most mountainous country in the UK and its topography is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault —a geological rock fracture —which traverses Scotland from Arran in the west to Stonehaven in the east.
The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff , Swansea and Newport , and the South Wales Valleys to their north.
The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia and include Snowdon Welsh: The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream , bring mild winters;  especially in the west where winters are wet and even more so over high ground.
Summers are warmest in the south-east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills. Each country of the United Kingdom has its own arrangements, whose origins often pre-date the UK's formation, meaning there is no consistent system of administrative or geographic demarcation across the United Kingdom. The organisation of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to local arrangements.
The upper-tier subdivisions of England are the nine regions , now used primarily for statistical purposes. Councillors are elected by the first-past-the-post system in single-member wards or by the multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards. For local government purposes , Scotland is divided into 32 council areas , with wide variation in both size and population. Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there are 1,;  they are paid a part-time salary. Elections are conducted by single transferable vote in multi-member wards that elect either three or four councillors.
Each council elects a Provost , or Convenor , to chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area. Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities.
These include the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, which are unitary authorities in their own right. Local government in Northern Ireland has since been organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single transferable vote. Their powers are limited to services such as collecting waste, controlling dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries. The United Kingdom has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: They are the last remaining remnants of the British Empire and a UK government white paper stated that: Britain has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option.
The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown , as opposed to overseas territories of the UK. By mutual agreement, the British Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf.
However, internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible". The British dependencies use a varied assortment of currencies. These include the British pound, US dollar, New Zealand dollar, euro or their own currencies, which may be pegged to either.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.
The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world: The parliament of the United Kingdom meets in the Palace of Westminster and has two houses: All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law. The position of prime minister , [note 12] the UK's head of government ,  belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.
The prime minister chooses a cabinet and its members are formally appointed by the monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government. The cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the House of Commons but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both.
Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the United Kingdom , and become Ministers of the Crown.
May is also the leader of the Conservative Party. For elections to the House of Commons, the UK is divided into constituencies ,  each electing a single member of parliament MP by simple plurality.
General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. Prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act , the Parliament Acts and required that a new election must be called no later than five years after the previous general election.
The Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats formerly as the Liberal Party have, in modern times, been considered the UK's three major political parties ,  representing the British traditions of conservatism , socialism and liberalism , respectively.
Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that contest elections only in one part of the UK: Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or executive , led by a First Minister or, in the case of Northern Ireland, a diarchal First Minister and deputy First Minister , and a devolved unicameral legislature.
England, the largest country of the United Kingdom, has no such devolved executive or legislature and is administered and legislated for directly by the UK's government and parliament on all issues. This situation has given rise to the so-called West Lothian question , which concerns the fact that members of parliament from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively,  on matters that affect only England.
The Scottish Government and Parliament have wide-ranging powers over any matter that has not been specifically reserved to the UK Parliament, including education , healthcare , Scots law and local government. The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly. The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved matters affecting Northern Ireland through the British—Irish Intergovernmental Conference , which assumes the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation.
The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system as Article 19 of the Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Scotland's separate legal system. English law , Northern Ireland law and Scots law. Both English law, which applies in England and Wales , and Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles.
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.
Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Session , for civil cases,  and the High Court of Justiciary , for criminal cases. Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal. The prison population of England and Wales has increased to 86,, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at per , Scotland's prisons are overcrowded but the prison population is shrinking.
It is also a member state of the European Union in the process of withdrawal. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.
The armed forces of the United Kingdom—officially, Her Majesty's Armed Forces —consist of three professional service branches: The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch , to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries.
By emerging victorious from some conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has remained a major military power. Following the end of the Cold War , defence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition.
Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone in , the last occasion on which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of According to various sources, including the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studies , the United Kingdom has the fourth- or fifth-highest military expenditure in the world.
Total defence spending amounts to 2. The UK has a partially regulated market economy. HM Treasury , led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer , is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue. The pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency after the US dollar and the euro.
The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry,  followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding , coal mining and steelmaking. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only In , the UK produced around 1. The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing: BAE Systems plays a critical role in some of the world's biggest defence aerospace projects.
It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter—the world's largest single defence project—for which it designs and manufactures a range of components. It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft.
Rolls-Royce is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30, engines in service in the civil and defence sectors.
It is growing at a rate of 7. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.
In the final quarter of , the UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since Since the s, UK economic inequality , like Canada, Australia and the United States, has grown faster than in other developed countries. The combination of the UK's relatively lax regulatory regime and London's financial institutions providing sophisticated methods to launder proceeds from criminal activity around the world, including those from drug trade, makes the City of London a global hub for illicit finance and the UK a safe haven for the world's major-league tax dodgers , according to research papers and reports published in the mids.
England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century. Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish ;  from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming ,  and the structure of DNA , by Francis Crick and others. Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry.
In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between and , which was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers following years of decline, although the factors behind this are disputed. Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets tracks, signals etc. About 20 privately owned Train Operating Companies operate passenger trains, which carried 1.
In the year from October to September UK airports handled a total of In , the UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th-largest producer. In , the UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU.
Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the mids, million tonnes of coal were produced annually, not falling below million tonnes until the early s. During the s and s the industry was scaled back considerably. In , the UK produced All but one of the reactors will be retired by Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply, in it generated 9.
Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the UK is universal. It is estimated that In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies. In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water.
A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. In mid and mid net long-term international migration contributed more to population growth. In mid and mid natural change contributed the most to population growth. England's population in was 53 million.
Greater Manchester Urban Area. West Yorkshire Urban Area. Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 11th century: Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK. The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the s during the period of the African slave trade.
During this period it is estimated the Afro-Caribbean population of Great Britain was 10, to 15,  which later declined due to the abolition of slavery.
By this number had more than quadrupled to ,, just over 0. Since substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire. Academics have argued that the ethnicity categories employed in British national statistics, which were first introduced in the census , involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race.
Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, data on the Other White group is not available for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest growing group between the and censuses, increasing by 1. Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. The UK's de facto official language is English. Four Celtic languages are spoken in the UK: Welsh , Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Cornish.
All are recognised as regional or minority languages, subject to specific measures of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages   and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Scots , a language descended from early northern Middle English , has limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion.
It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England. All pupils in Wales are taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh. Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over years. In the census Islam , Hinduism , Judaism , etc. The Church of England is the established church in England.
It is not subject to state control , and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government " upon his or her accession. The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration.
London held around half of this population, and other small communities existed in Manchester, Bradford and elsewhere. The German immigrant community was the largest group until , when it became second only to Russian Jews.
After Russian Jews suffered bitter persecutions, and, out of some 2,, who left Russia by , around , settled permanently in Britain, overtaking the Germans to be the largest ethnic minority from outside the British Isles. Many of these migrants came from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. In the net increase was , In , approximately , foreign citizens were naturalised as British citizens, the highest number since records began in This figure fell to around , in Between and , the average number of people granted British citizenship per year was , Over a quarter The British Government has introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.
Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between and around Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system. Considering the four systems together, about 38 percent of the United Kingdom population has a university or college degree , which is the highest percentage in Europe, and among the highest percentages in the world.
Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education , the day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities. Two of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in were state-run grammar schools. Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning , with day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities.
Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres. The Welsh Government has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language ; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education , although responsibility at a local level is administered by the Education Authority which is further sub-divided into five geographical areas.
Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care , together with alternative , holistic and complementary treatments. Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The World Health Organization , in , ranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world.
However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives ; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive ; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government ; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government.
Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts. The culture of the United Kingdom has been influenced by many factors including: The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower".
Most British literature is in the English language. In , some , books were published in the United Kingdom and in it was the largest publisher of books in the world. The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time,    and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been held in continuous high esteem.
Wells ; the writers of children's classics Rudyard Kipling , A. Rowling ; the graphic novelists Alan Moore and Neil Gaiman. Scotland's contributions include the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle the creator of Sherlock Holmes , romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott , the children's writer J. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance.
A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin 's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age. Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets are both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the midth century. He is remembered for his poetry—his " Do not go gentle into that good night ; Rage, rage against the dying of the light" is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse—and for his "play for voices", Under Milk Wood.
The influential Church in Wales "poet-priest" and Welsh nationalist R. Thomas was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in Authors of other nationalities, particularly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have lived and worked in the UK.
Various styles of music are popular in the UK from the indigenous folk music of England , Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland to heavy metal. Sir Harrison Birtwistle is one of the foremost living composers. George Frideric Handel became a naturalised British citizen and wrote the British coronation anthem, while some of his best works, such as Messiah , were written in the English language.
His works have dominated London's West End since the late 20th century and have also been a commercial success worldwide. The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the biggest-selling and most influential band in the history of popular music.
A number of UK cities are known for their music. Acts from Liverpool have had 54 UK chart number one hit singles, more per capita than any other city worldwide. The history of British visual art forms part of western art history. Major British artists include: During the late s and s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as the " Young British Artists ": The Royal Academy in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the visual arts in the United Kingdom.
Major schools of art in the UK include: The Courtauld Institute of Art is a leading centre for the teaching of the history of art. The United Kingdom has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema.
The British directors Alfred Hitchcock , whose film Vertigo is considered by some critics as the best film of all time ,  and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all-time. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence. British producers are active in international co-productions and British actors, directors and crew feature regularly in American films.
Many successful Hollywood films have been based on British people, stories or events, including Titanic , The Lord of the Rings , Pirates of the Caribbean. The BBC , founded in , is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world.
Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively. In , it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3.
In that year the main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for an estimated The United Kingdom is famous for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', a branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes referred to as the ' Scottish School of Common Sense '.
Two Britons are also notable for a theory of moral philosophy utilitarianism , first used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in his short work Utilitarianism.
Major sports, including association football, tennis , rugby union , rugby league , golf , boxing , netball , rowing and cricket , originated or were substantially developed in the UK and the states that preceded it. With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th century Victorian Britain , in , the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge , stated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognised as the birthplace of modern sport.
It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations. It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum". In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games.
There are some sports in which a single team represents the whole of United Kingdom, including the Olympics, where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team. The , and Summer Olympics were held in London, making it the first city to host the games three times. Britain has participated in every modern Olympic Games to date and is third in the medal count. A poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom.
The English top division, the Premier League , is the most watched football league in the world. In , rugby union was ranked the second most popular sport in the UK. Sport governing bodies in England , Scotland , Wales and Ireland organise and regulate the game separately. Cricket was invented in England, and its laws were established by Marylebone Cricket Club in Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players.
Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, although Wales had fielded its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals and Ireland is yet to play their first test match.
There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the s, before spreading around the world.
The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. The UK is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One F1 are based in the UK, and the country has won more drivers' and constructors' titles than any other.
The premier national auto racing event is the British Touring Car Championship. Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the UK. Rugby league originated in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire in and is generally played in Northern England. Super League is the highest level of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe. The 'Queensberry rules' , the code of general rules in boxing , was named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in , and formed the basis of modern boxing.
It was created in by the superimposition of the Flag of England on the Flag of Scotland and updated in with the addition of Saint Patrick's Flag. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out.
Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain. She holds Poseidon 's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. Since the height of the British Empire in the late 19th century, Britannia has often been associated with British maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song " Rule, Britannia! Up until , the lion symbol was depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and on the back of the British ten pence coin.
It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. A second, less used, personification of the nation is the character John Bull. The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany. The following are international rankings of the United Kingdom, including those measuring life quality, health care quality, stability, press freedom and income.
United Kingdom — Wikipedia book. Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. It is not to be confused with Great Britain , its largest island whose name is also loosely applied to the whole country. For other uses of "UK", see UK disambiguation. For other uses of "United Kingdom", see United Kingdom disambiguation. Royal coat of arms [note 1]. England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland.
Britain place name and Terminology of the British Isles. History of the British Isles. History of the United Kingdom. Acts of Union Political history of the United Kingdom —present and Social history of the United Kingdom —present. Geography of the United Kingdom. Skye is one of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides and part of the Scottish Highlands. Climate of the United Kingdom. The four countries of the United Kingdom. Administrative geography of the United Kingdom. Politics of the United Kingdom.
Queen Elizabeth II , Monarch since Theresa May , Prime Minister since Government of the United Kingdom. Law of the United Kingdom. Foreign relations of the United Kingdom. Economy of the United Kingdom. The City of London is one of the world's largest financial centres   . Science and technology in the United Kingdom.
Transport in the United Kingdom. Energy in the United Kingdom. Water supply and sanitation in the United Kingdom. Demography of the United Kingdom. Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Languages of the United Kingdom. Religion in the United Kingdom. Modern immigration to the United Kingdom. Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom.
Education in the United Kingdom. Education in Northern Ireland. Healthcare in the United Kingdom. Culture of the United Kingdom.
Music of the United Kingdom. Rock music in the United Kingdom. Art of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom. Media of the United Kingdom. Sport in the United Kingdom. In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem. The words Queen, she, her , used at present in the reign of Elizabeth II , are replaced by King, he, him when the monarch is male. When it took effect one year later, it established the Irish Free State as a separate dominion within the Commonwealth.
The UK's current name was adopted to reflect the change. Official web site of the British Royal Family. Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 12 December Census reveals a picture of Britain today". Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" PDF.
United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 9 August Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 11 November United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 29 October Great Britain is the name for the island that comprises England, Scotland and Wales, although the term is also used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom.
Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 17 April In a similar way to how the government is formed from members from the two Houses of Parliament, members of the devolved legislatures nominate ministers from among themselves to comprise executives, known as the devolved administrations Transport Research Knowledge Centre. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 6 March Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Retrieved 9 March The First Industrial Nation: The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Wirtz; Michel Fortmann State University of New York Press, Britain and World Power Since Constructing a Nation's Role in International Politics.
United States of America: University of Michigan Press. Retrieved 23 August The Standard Reference Work: Retrieved 18 July The Irish Civil War — Edwin Mellen Press, One specific problem—in both general and particular senses—is to know what to call Northern Ireland itself: International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 28 May Regional Labour Market Statistics". Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 5 March Guardian News and Media Limited.
Government, citizens and rights. Retrieved 5 November England, Wales, and Scotland considered as a unit. The name is also often used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom.
Retrieved 10 May Constitutional and administrative law. Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey Rudy starts - three newcomers on the bench Some early reaction from Norwich boss Farke. The moment that changed the game. Verdicts on the whistle. Norwich Boro A frustrating afternoon. A chance goes begging. Can he rescue a point for Boro? Boro's first effort on target Boro won a free-kick just inside the Norwich half just now, which gave Ben Gibson and Daniel Ayala the chance to get forward.
Fourteen minutes to play. A call for Assombalonga. Fine save, Randolph Good stop from Randolph just now to keep Boro in it. As I type, Randolph makes another smart stop, again from Oliveira. Meanwhile, at Villa Park Albert Adomah has just put Villa two up against Burton. On comes Howson against his former club Jonny Howson has replaced Patrick Bamford and looks to have slotted in on the right side of midfield for Boro. The midfielder received warm applause from the home fans.
Maddison has been watching De Bruyne A low free-kick under the wall that went just a whisker wide with Randolph glued to his spot. Carrow Road pays tribute to Norwich superfan.
Boro threaten for the first time in the second half The opening came about thanks to the sheer strength of Adama Traore.
Back underway - apologies for the delay in updates Apologies, the wifi went down at the break. Norwich ahead What was I saying? Again, Norwich were forced to shoot from distance Great strike from Tom Trybull. Has the sending off changed the game? The sending off Thoughts? Pulis forced into a re-think A red card with more than an hour left to play - a nightmare for Boro. Boro have responded well after the sending off. Boro are down to 10 men. Rudy gets carded The striker was quick to apologise after his high foot caught the head of Norwich captain Alex Tettey just now.
Maddison looks dangerous Two teams, two dangermen. Bamford tries his luck. Boro threaten for the first time After being called into action at the back in the very early stages, Boro have had their first foray forward just now, winning a corner on the near side. Fletcher the lone frontman for Sunderland. Crucial early block from Clayton I wondered whether Clayton was in the team today to keep a close eye on James Maddison.
Sport all Most Read Most Recent. Championship updates from Griffin Park Boro go into the game eight points clear of the Bees:: Join us for live updates from West London. Harry Chapman Middlesbrough winger Harry Chapman's return to action ends in further injury setback The year-old's comeback was cut short after sustaining another hamstring injury playing for Blackburn Unders. Middlesbrough FC Middlesbrough handed Daniel Ayala blow as Tony Pulis reveals Britt Assombalonga talks this week The Spaniard has not trained this week after struggling with a groin problem and is a major doubt ahead of the game at Brentford.
Middlesbrough FC What next for Middlesbrough's Britt Assombalonga and how striker's name will top several summer wishlists The striker will break his own career record should he fail to score at Brentford, but could still have a huge role to play for Boro. Most Read Most Recent. Police investigation under way The A was shut for 6 hours after the serious road traffic collision:: An ambulance was stood down at the scene.
Stockton-on-Tees New indoor go-karting centre plan for Stockton which could bring 40 jobs The centre would be near other 'day-out' venues like Jump and Pet Mania:: The application has been lodged with Stockton Council.
Stockton Mum claims son was attacked by gang of 30 children as he walked home from school Mum-of-four Carrie-Ann Saunders has pulled her year-old son from Outwood Academy Bishopsgarth until the situation is resolved. Teesside University Jacksons Law recruits six for property market boom Upward trend in 'unpredictable' market, says boss Geoff Skeoch.
Saltburn and East Cleveland This Saltburn walk with 'amazing views' makes its way into top 10 list The circular walk starts and finishes at the railway station:: It takes in the highest point of the coast.
Ingleby Barwick and Thornaby Fire crew frees man trapped in car seat - after 45 minute wait The man, from Ingleby Barwick, had to resort to an emergency call:: His finger was freed by a team of firefighters. Officers focussed on trouble hotspots in a bid to flush out offenders. A Dispersal Order was in place from 4pm last night:: Cleveland Police Spike in shoplifting blamed on police 'not pursuing small-scale thefts'.
Cleveland Police say it is working closely with businesses to reduce retail crime:: But the number of shoplifting incidents has spiked. Teesside News Teesside braces itself for the 'mini Beast from the East' as snow and ice warnings extended Yellow weather warnings for snow, ice and wind are in place over the weekend:: The Met Office is warning of disruption.
Stockton-on-Tees New indoor go-karting centre plan for Stockton which could bring 40 jobs. The centre would be near other 'day-out' venues like Jump and Pet Mania::
Images: speed dating middlesbrough 2015
That was a chance for big Daniel and Gibson to bound forward, but Norwich defended the set-piece well and cleared their lines. The early modern period saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches in each country. Retrieved 5 November
Sources and origins PDF.
Retrieved 18 December Lifestyles and social participation" PDF. All pupils in Wales are taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh. Retrieved 11 December However, controversy surrounds some of Britain's overseas military deploymentsparticularly in Afghanistan and Iraq. Datng Celtic languages are spoken in the UK: Middlesbrough FC Championship promotion speed dating middlesbrough 2015
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